Abram (Alexander) Yakovlevich Mutnick
(party alias - Gleb) was born in 1868 in Vilna.
Famous politician, he began his revolutionary career at the end of 1880-es. In the begining of 90-es Mutnick was known as organizer of workers club in Vilna.
On the 1st of May, 1895, famous russian social-democrat Yuli Osipovich. Martov (Tsederbaum) put forward an idea of the creation of jewish worker`s party. Alexander Mutnick was one of the deputies in the first congress of Bund (The Union of jewish workers in Lithuania, Poland and Russia) on 25th-27th of September, 1897 in Vilna. The deputies were from Vilna, Minsk, Belastok, newspapers "Arbeiter Shtime" and "Judishe arbeiter" and publishing house of "Arbeiter Shtime" The congress ellected a party central committee: Alexander Kremer, Alexander Mutnick and Vl. Kossovsky)..
From the 1th till 3rd of March, 1998, in railwayman Rumiantsev flat in the cente of Minsk passed the first (creation) congrees of a new party (Russian Social Democratic Working Party). Deputies from Moscow(Alecander Vannovsky), St. Petersburg (Stepan Radchenko), Kiev (from "Rabochaya gazeta" - (Workers newspaper) - Baruch Eidelman, Nathan Vigdorchik and Pavel Tuchapsky), Ekatherinoslav (Kazimir Petrusevich) and Bund - Alexander Kremer, Alexander Mutnick and Sholom Katz.. Bund played a great role in organization of congress. Three Bund deputies took an active part in acongress work. We must add, that preliminary meeting of congress deputies was in Alexander Mutnick`s flat.
After the congress eight from nine deputies were arrested. Alexander Mutnick was between them. He was arrested on the 26th of July, 1898, as all members of Bund central commitie. In July, Russian police liquidated two publishing houses of Bund (in Minsk and Babruisk) and a publishing housr of social-democratic group "Rabochee znamya" ("Worker`s flag") in Belastok. According, to historian N. Buchbinder police arrested 67 active Bund members. The majority of them were under preliminary arrest till 1900. In April, 1901 were sentenced V. Bonevur an Elena Gurvich (one of the congress organizers) to exile for four ears under the police supervision to Eastern Siberia; B. Shwarz, M. Krigel, Sh. Vilter for 3 years. I. Kaplynsky was sentenced for 4 years in place, that he selected, for 3 years - E.Sherman, Alexander. Mutnick. All members of the central committie - Kremer, Mutnick and Kossovsky fleed from Russia.
Mutnick went to London and Geneva, till 1905 - he was a head of Bund foreign committee. In 1906 Mutnick began to work as an administrator of Bund legal press in Vilna. He supported an ideas and tactics of Menshivik movement in Russian social-democracy (an opposition to Lenin`s Bolshevik part of RSDRP). In 1907 Mutnick gave his support to "liquidation movement" (a movement against illegal social-democratic party).
Before World War I Alexander Mutnick emigrated, settled in Stockholm, went away from politics. He supported Russian revolution in February of 1917, but was strongly against Bolshevik revolution.
In 1919 he went to Berlin, where managed a russian publishing house "Vostok" ("East"). In Berlin Mutnick joined a social-democratic club, created in honour of Martov.
Today, in Minsk, in the museum of the first congress of Russian Social Democratic Party (former Rumiantsev house) we can see a lot of photos, documents about this Congress, about Bund and it deputies - Alexander Kremer, Alexander Mutnick and Sholom Katz. They were creators of party, which changed Russian history.