According to the archealogical data Novogrudok (Navagrudak) existed since the end of 10th century.
 It  was a center of Duchy.Novogrudok In 1252 Navagrudak (Navagradak) mentioned as a residence of Ltihuanian duke Mindoug. SInce 1509 Navagrudak was known as a center of Voevodstivo.  Jewish settlement in  Navagrudak was one of the first in Belarus.
The first  mention in documents  about jews in Navagrudak  is 1322 or 1484. The main role in the creation of community played Michael Azlovich. One of the first mentions about jews in Navagrudak is  a great rabbi Shlomo Luria (Makharshal) from Brest (the first half of 16th century)  response N59. Rabbi Shlomo wrote about Naagrudak  jew,  who sent very uncensorship reproach to jewish girl for her refusal to dance with him. 
In 1561 jews were released for a payment of special tax (named "syarebschina" - specia l tax for army).
In the beginnig jews lived between christian population on Padlyashskaya steet. In 1563 Polish king and Lithuanian duke Sigizmund August decided to move  jews to the Navagrudak  outskirt (Vilenskaya and Trushkovskaya streets). Jews payed for this  territory about 1.600 dukats. Also, king  gave jews a right for independence from Navagrudak administration, the existance of own jewish court, and established special jewish taxes.
The quantity of jews constantly grew. In 1623 Lithuanian Vaad (council of main Lithuanian rabbies and community leaders) decided to subject  Navagrudak jewish community to Brest kagal (community)  rule.  The occupations of Navagrudak jews were small trade and handicraft. In 1648  in Navagrudak was  built a new  stone synagogue in Barocco style (existed til the 50-es of XX century).
XVIII century was awful for Navagrudak. During the war between Russia and Sweden ("North war" of 1700-21) Swedish  army destroyed Navagrudak. The epidemic of 1708 cost Navagrudak half of it population. 8th of May, 1751 - date of great fire in Navagrudak. The fire destoryed half of  the town  (167 houses, 4 catholic churches, magistrat house - ratusha, voevoda office and a lot of shops). The result of all this events was a mass jewish bunkruptcy.
More than 893  jews lived in Navagrudak in 1765. 12.031 jews lived in Navagrudak
voevodstvo.
Since 1795 Navagrudak was a part of Russian Empire. In 1797  2.917 jews (1.156 - male  and 1.761 - female) lived in Navagrudak uezd (1.500 in Navagrudak).
In the beginning of 19th century russian authorities prohibited jews to settle in the villages. All jews were evicted from the villages to the shtetls.  It was one of the reason of the growth of Navagrudak jewish community.
According to the 1847 revision Navagrudak uezd had three big jewish communities: Navagrudak - 2.576, Lubcha - 973, Stalovichi  - 1.571 and  Mir - 2.273. In 1861  6.379 people lived in Navagrudak (half of them - jews). The results of the famous Russian  1897 census for Navagrudak uezd were:
 

Shtetl
All Population 
Jewish population
Navagrudak
7.887
5.015
Uselub
1.306
645
Garadzeya
754
668
Garadzishcha
2.631
2.108
Dzeliatichi
1.439
461
Yaremichi
865
258
Karelichi
2.559
1.840
Kroshin (Yurzdyka, Scheda)
966
151
Lubcha
3.374
2.463
Palonka
645
549
Mir
5.401
3.319
Mysh Novaya
2.995
1.764
Nechnevichi
610
276
Razvodava
4.692
2.171
Snou
707
526
Stvalovichi
929
515
Strelava
529
66
Turets
1.616
737
Tsyryn
649
144

In 1897 Navagtudak uezd had 247.000 inhabitants (30.483 - jews).
In 1854 in Navagrudak was opened a jewish state school with 15 pupils. They studied: Torah, Russian, Hebrew and German and others. 1892-93 was a date of birth of jewish private male  school. Navagrudak uezd had also  four heders with 38 pupils. 
In 19th century in   Navagrudak were a lot of shops, several fairs. Every year (on the19th of March) was organized one of the most popular fairs.
Navagrudak matza had a great popularity. Navagrudak made matza packed up to special boxes and after with transported to the US, South Africa and Australia.
The result of economic and political persecution, police of State anti-semitism in Russian Empire   was a jewish  emigration to the USA. In the begining of 20th century more then 4.500 ex-Navagrudak jews lived in the US.
In the beginning of the 20th century the majority of  Navagudak jews lived near the Central Square and Valeuskaya and Yaureiskaya (Jewish) streets. They lived in wooden houses. A great problem for Navagrudak was an absence of fire-brigade.  Great fire was in Navagrudak in Autumn of 1907, in  the day of Yom-Kipur. The fire bagan in the one of jewish houses. Navagrudak was in flames. More then one hundred houses were burnt. In New-York was created a special commitee of Navagrudak born  jews for help to their native town.
During the World War I  German army occupied Navagrudak (from September, 1915,  till January, 1918). After  the  February and Bolshevik revolution and Polish occupation, according to the Riga treaty (March, 1921) Navagrudak was in squad of Poland as a center of voevodstvo and uezd. In 1921  author of famous Yiddish-English Dictionary Alexander Harkavy brought the  money from the US for Navagrudak citizens  to the Navagrudak jews. It was a great help for Navagrudak jewry. Under the  polish rule Navagrudak jewry had religious, professional and  secular schools,  Jewish people bank,  theater, stringed and brass-band orchestra, football team "Maccabi", two newspapers ("Navagrudak lebun" - Navagrudak life, "Navagrudak woch" - Navagrudak week).
On the 17th of 1939, Red Army invaded Poland. Two days later Soviet soldiers were in Navagrudak.  Navagrudak became part of the Baranavichi region of  Belarussian Soviet Socialist Republic and of Soviet Union.
On the 22nd of June, 1941, Nazi Germany invaded USSR. Several days later they occupied Navagrudak.  On the 14th of July, in the center of main Navagrudak square they shooted 52 prominent Navagrudak jews. In December, 1941, german administration created a ghetto in Peresetskaya and Minskaya streets.  The germans brought in Navagrudak jews from the  Navagrudak region  -  about 5.000 people). In the history of Navagrudal jewry were  four mass shooting: the 8th of December,  1941 (4.500 from 7.000 Navagrudak jews were killed), the 19th of August, 1942,  the 4th of February,  1943,  the 7th of May, 1943.
During  July - September, 1943, ghetto inhabitamts dug a tunnel out from the ghetto (the length of tunnel was about 150 m). With the help of this tunnel 233 jews left Navagrudak ghetto. They joined Tuv`ya Belskiy and his brothers (Assael and Zusya)  partyzan detachment.
In Spring, 1942,  Tuv`ya with his two younger brothers fleed form Lida ghetto.
They created a jewish  partyzan  detatachment under command of  Tuv`ya Belskiy (1906-87) . He was born in Stankevichi, near Navagrudak. Jewish  detechment was located in the forests, between Navagrudak and Nalibotskaya pushcha. If in Spring, 1942, had  only  17 people, that in July, 1944, - 1410.
Belskiya detachment meant a death  for the germans and their local supporters. In the beginning of  1943 german command announced a prize of 100.000 german marks for the help and assistance in  catch of  Tuv`ya Belski.  In 1943 Tuv`ya Belskiy detachment devided into two groups: family group (detachment imeni Kalinina) and militant ( detachment imeni Ordzhonikidze). Former ghetto priosners, jewish partyzans, who suffered from anti-semitism in other detachments joined jewish detechment. Tuv`ya Belski said: Just because, that only a few jews left -  for me, it is very important, that jews stay living. It is my aim, it is the most important for me" My aim    Belskiya detachment fought with the germans until the liberation of Navagrudak by  Red  Army  (the  9 th of July, 1944). .
During the german occupation in Navagrudak were killed more then 10.000 jews. Part of Navagrudak was killed  Baranavichi ghetto.
Only 400 Navagrudak jews survived the Holocaust. In 1989 Navagrudak and Navagrudak region had 55 jews.

This article was prepared with the great help of Mikalay Gayba (Navagrudak) materials:
Z gistorii Navagrudskay yaureiskay abshchiny (From the history of Navagrudak jewish community),
Belarusika, kniga 4., Minsk, 1995.  

 
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